Redox Effect - KDF Water Filters - High Chlorine Removal

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Shower Filters Using KDF  shower filters with KDF

Manufacturers, hospitals, beverage manufacturers, restaurants, municipal water treatment facilities, consumers, and others rely on KDF process media to safely reduce or remove chlorine, hydrogen sulfide (rotten egg sulfur smell), heavy metals, and bacteria from water.

When used alone, KDF media can remove more than 95% of chlorine, iron, heavy metals, hydrogen sulfide, and other contaminants from water.
Compared to other water treatment technologies, KDF process media offers reduced material requirements resulting in more compact and more economical systems.  KDF process media also last longer than GAC (granular activated carbon), which means material replacement requirements are lower.

Because KDF process media contain no chemical additives and are 100% recyclable, costly disposal requirements are eliminated.  What's more, KDF process media are safer for the environment.

Household water treatment

Both point-of-entry and point-of-use applications use KDF media to remove chlorine, lead, bacteria, iron, other heavy metals, and a variety of other impurities.  For whole-house water systems, KDF media remove chlorine and other impurities from the water supply at the point-of-entry.

For chlorine removal in point-of-use applications, KDF media is incorporated into shower filters and into cartridges at the tap.  KDF media are also used in water treatment systems in recreational vehicles.

KDF medium delivers 10 times greater filter life than GAC  shower filters with KDF

KDF Medium                 GAC

In a controlled test under normal operating conditions, KDF process media delivered a filter life 10 times longer than GAC in chlorine removal service.

Water treatment costs with KDF medium are less than half that of GAC  shower filters with KDF

KDF Medium                 GAC

In the same test, after treating two million gallons of water, chlorine removal cost is 50% lower with KDF process media.

Contaminants removed by KDF process media

KDF process media remove many of the most common impurities found in water supplies.

Chlorine Removal

KDF medium can remove up to 99% of free chlorine. 

KDF medium can also be used to replace GAC entirely.  Because KDF medium provides more efficient chlorine removal, you benefit from a more cost effective water treatment system.  Chlorine removal costs can be reduced 50% or more with KDF medium.

Iron Removal

Iron (Fe+2) or ferrous iron in groundwater can impart objectionable taste and color to potable water and can severely stain household fixtures.  KDF process media removes iron from water used at the point-of-entry.

KDF medium removes more than 90% of iron from groundwater supplies.  What's more, compared to the alternatives, KDF medium costs less, with higher flow rates and reduced medium requirements, as shown in the table below.

Hydrogen sulfide removal

Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a highly corrosive gas formed in groundwater when bacteria decompose vegetation and other organic matter.  H2S removal with KDF process media is both safe and economical.

KDF medium eliminates H2S by reducing the hydrogen sulfide gas to cupric sulfide, an inert, harmless precipitant.  KDF medium then filters the precipitant from the water.

In contrast, aeration towers and degasification systems are expensive H2S removal options.  Using chlorine to oxidize H2S can leave trihalomethane levels exceeding U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) limits.

One-third as much KDF medium provides three times the effective flow rate of other filter media in iron removal service.

  KDF Media Oxidation/
Flow Rate 15 gpm/sq.ft. 5 gpm/sq.ft. 5 gpm/sq.ft. 20-30 gpm/sq.ft.
Amount of Medium
Required for
Residential Application
1/3 cu.ft. 1 cu.ft. 1 cu.ft. 1 cu.ft.

Heavy metals removal

Heavy metals in drinking water are a significant health threat. KDF media can remove up to 98% of water-soluble lead, mercury, nickel, chromium, and other dissolved metals.  KDF media can be used alone, or to protect existing water purification technologies to treat groundwater supplies containing water-soluble heavy metals or to remove heavy metals from process water before it is discharged.

Controlling Microorganisms

KDF media control the build-up of bacteria, algae and fungi in GAC beds, carbon block filters, and in-line carbon filters.

By eliminating these microorganisms, KDF media significantly extend the life of the carbon, as well as protect downstream RO membranes and ion exchange resins from fouling.

KDF media also control scale, algae, and bacteria.

Using KDF media to reduce the build-up of bacteria and other microorganisms eliminates the need for chemical treatment methods which are both costly and harmful to the environment.

Microorganisms, however, are controlled two ways: First, the exchange of electrons in the Redox reaction creates an electrolytic field that most microorganisms can't survive.  Second, KDF process media can cause hydroxyl radicals and peroxides to form from some water molecules.  The hydroxide radicals and peroxides interfere with microorganisms' ability to function.

Municipal water treatment

Many municipalities rely on the exceptional performance of KDF media to remove chlorine and other impurities from feed water entering public utilities, schools, and businesses.

KDF media are also cost-effective alternatives to green sand and other filtration methods traditionally used to remove iron from municipal water supplies.

Commercial water treatment

Water treatment systems serving commercial facilities such as hotels and restaurants use KDF process media to remove chlorine.  These facilities benefit from better tasting water with less odor, as well as less wear on towels, bedding, napkins and other items that are laundered frequently on-site.

Process water treatment

KDF media remove chlorine and help control bacteria and scale build-up in large-scale industrial water treatment facilities serving cooling towers, food and beverage plants, and industrial laundry facilities.

Medical water treatment

For medical labs and dialysis centers where water purity is crucial, KDF media provide exceptional water purification.  KDF media also remove mercury and other water-soluble heavy metals from feed water entering hospitals and from wastewater prior to discharge to public water treatment systems.

Redox action is the science behind KDF process media

KDF process media are high-purity, copper-zinc formulations that reduce contaminants in water using an oxidation/reduction (Redox) reaction.

In other words, KDF media exchange electrons with contaminants, changing them into harmless components.  For example, chlorine is changed into water-soluble chloride, soluble ferrous cations are changed into insoluble ferric hydroxide, and hydrogen sulfide is changed into insoluble copper sulfide.

Typical Redox reactions  shower filters with KDF

zinc chloride chlorine

Harmful chlorine is removed by changing free chlorine into hydroxide-soluble chloride ions.



Fe  shower filters with KDF

KDF process media act as catalysts to change soluble ferrous cations into insoluble ferric hydroxide.


CU+2  shower filters with KDF

Other heavy metals such as mercury, copper, and nickel are removed simply by bonding to the KDF media.

Shower Filters Using KDF

Standard Replacement Filters Using KDF

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